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As continental drift became widely accepted during the s, and the increased understanding of plate tectonics demonstrated the impossibility of a lost continent in the geologically recent past,  most "Lost Continent" theories of Atlantis began to wane in popularity.
The continuing industry of discovering Atlantis illustrates the dangers of reading Plato. For he is clearly using what has become a standard device of fiction—stressing the historicity of an event and the discovery of hitherto unknown authorities as an indication that what follows is fiction.
The idea is that we should use the story to examine our ideas of government and power. We have missed the point if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the sea bed.
The continuing misunderstanding of Plato as historian here enables us to see why his distrust of imaginative writing is sometimes justified.
One of the proposed explanations for the historical context of the Atlantis story is a warning of Plato to his contemporary fourth-century fellow-citizens against their striving for naval power.
Kenneth Feder points out that Critias's story in the Timaeus provides a major clue. In the dialogue, Critias says, referring to Socrates' hypothetical society:.
And when you were speaking yesterday about your city and citizens, the tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my mind, and I remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence, you agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of Solon.
Feder quotes A. Taylor, who wrote, "We could not be told much more plainly that the whole narrative of Solon's conversation with the priests and his intention of writing the poem about Atlantis are an invention of Plato's fancy.
Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens of locations proposed for Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic concept, divorced from the specifics of Plato's account.
This is reflected in the fact that many proposed sites are not within the Atlantic at all. Few today are scholarly or archaeological hypotheses, while others have been made by psychic e.
Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the Mediterranean Sea: islands such as Sardinia ,    Crete , Santorini Thera , Sicily , Cyprus , and Malta ; land-based cities or states such as Troy ,  Tartessos , and Tantalis in the province of Manisa , Turkey ;  Israel - Sinai or Canaan ; [ citation needed ] and northwestern Africa.
The Thera eruption , dated to the seventeenth or sixteenth century BC, caused a large tsunami that some experts hypothesize devastated the Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired the story.
Others have noted that, before the sixth century BC, the mountains on either side of the Gulf of Laconia were called the "Pillars of Hercules",   and they could be the geographical location being described in ancient reports upon which Plato was basing his story.
The mountains stood at either side of the southernmost gulf in Greece, the largest in the Peloponnese , and that gulf opens onto the Mediterranean Sea.
If from the beginning of discussions, misinterpretation of Gibraltar as the location rather than being at the Gulf of Laconia, would lend itself to many erroneous concepts regarding the location of Atlantis.
Plato may have not been aware of the difference. The Laconian pillars open to the south toward Crete and beyond which is Egypt.
The Thera eruption and the Late Bronze Age collapse affected that area and might have been the devastation to which the sources used by Plato referred.
Significant events such as these would have been likely material for tales passed from one generation to another for almost a thousand years.
The location of Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean has a certain appeal given the closely related names.
Popular culture often places Atlantis there, perpetuating the original Platonic setting as they understand it. The Canary Islands and Madeira Islands have been identified as a possible location,     west of the Straits of Gibraltar, but in relative proximity to the Mediterranean Sea.
Detailed studies of their geomorphology and geology have demonstrated, however, that they have been steadily uplifted, without any significant periods of subsidence, over the last four million years, by geologic processes such as erosional unloading, gravitational unloading, lithospheric flexure induced by adjacent islands, and volcanic underplating.
Several hypotheses place the sunken island in northern Europe, including Doggerland in the North Sea , and Sweden by Olof Rudbeck in Atland , — Doggerland, as well as Viking Bergen Island, is thought to have been flooded by a megatsunami following the Storegga slide of c.
Some have proposed the Celtic Shelf as a possible location, and that there is a link to Ireland.
In , a team, working on a documentary for the National Geographic Channel ,  led by Professor Richard Freund from the University of Hartford , claimed to have found possible evidence of Atlantis in southwestern Andalusia.
Spanish scientists have dismissed Freund's speculations, claiming that he sensationalised their work. A similar theory had previously been put forward by a German researcher, Rainer W.
Several writers have speculated that Antarctica is the site of Atlantis,   while others have proposed Caribbean locations such as the alleged Cuban sunken city off the Guanahacabibes peninsula in Cuba ,  the Bahamas , and the Bermuda Triangle.
Areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have also been proposed including Indonesia i. In order to give his account of Atlantis verisimilitude , Plato mentions that the story was heard by Solon in Egypt, and transmitted orally over several generations through the family of Dropides, until it reached Critias, a dialogue speaker in Timaeus and Critias.
While it was never completed, Solon passed on the story to Dropides. Modern classicists deny the existence of Solon's Atlantis poem and the story as an oral tradition.
Hellanicus of Lesbos used the word "Atlantis" as the title for a poem published before Plato,  a fragment of which may be Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 11, Writing only a few decades after the Timaeus and Critias , the historian Theopompus of Chios wrote of a land beyond the ocean known as Meropis.
This description was included in Book 8 of his Philippica , which contains a dialogue between Silenus and King Midas. He also reports that an army of ten million soldiers crossed the ocean to conquer Hyperborea , but abandoned this proposal when they realized that the Hyperboreans were the luckiest people on earth.
Heinz-Günther Nesselrath has argued that these and other details of Silenus' story are meant as imitation and exaggeration of the Atlantis story, by parody, for the purpose of exposing Plato's ideas to ridicule.
The creation of Utopian and dystopian fictions was renewed after the Renaissance, most notably in Francis Bacon's New Atlantis , the description of an ideal society that he located off the western coast of America.
Thomas Heyrick followed him with "The New Atlantis" , a satirical poem in three parts. His new continent of uncertain location, perhaps even a floating island either in the sea or the sky, serves as background for his exposure of what he described in a second edition as "A True Character of Popery and Jesuitism".
The title of The New Atalantis by Delarivier Manley , distinguished from the two others by the single letter, is an equally dystopian work but set this time on a fictional Mediterranean island.
When the high priest of this ideology is tempted by a slave girl into an act of irrationality, he murders her and precipitates a second flood, above which her severed head floats vengefully among the stars.
Its three parts consist of a verse narrative of the life and training of an Atlantean wise one, followed by his Utopian moral teachings and then a psychic drama set in modern times in which a reincarnated child embodying the lost wisdom is reborn on earth.
In Hispanic eyes, Atlantis had a more intimate interpretation. The land had been a colonial power which, although it had brought civilization to ancient Europe, had also enslaved its peoples.
Its tyrannical fall from grace had contributed to the fate that had overtaken it, but now its disappearance had unbalanced the world.
This was the point of view of Jacint Verdaguer 's vast mythological epic L'Atlantida After the sinking of the former continent, Hercules travels east across the Atlantic to found the city of Barcelona and then departs westward again to the Hesperides.
The story is told by a hermit to a shipwrecked mariner, who is inspired to follow in his tracks and so "call the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old".
This mariner, of course, was Christopher Columbus. Verdaguer's poem was written in Catalan , but was widely translated in both Europe and Hispano-America.
There is a similar ambivalence in Janus Djurhuus ' six-stanza "Atlantis" , where a celebration of the Faroese linguistic revival grants it an ancient pedigree by linking Greek to Norse legend.
In the poem a female figure rising from the sea against a background of Classical palaces is recognised as a priestess of Atlantis.
The fact that Atlantis is a lost land has made of it a metaphor for something no longer attainable. For the American poet Edith Willis Linn Forbes , "The Lost Atlantis" stands for idealisation of the past; the present moment can only be treasured once that is realised.
For some male poets too, the idea of Atlantis is constructed from what cannot be obtained. Charles Bewley in his Newdigate Prize poem thinks it grows from dissatisfaction with one's condition,.
Auden , however, suggests a way out of such frustration through the metaphor of journeying toward Atlantis in his poem of A few late nineteenth century verse narratives complement the genre fiction that was beginning to be written at the same period.
Two of them report the disaster that overtook the continent as related by long-lived survivors. In Frederick Tennyson 's Atlantis an ancient Greek mariner sails west and discovers an inhabited island, which is all that remains of the former kingdom.
He learns of its end and views the shattered remnant of its former glory, from which a few had escaped to set up the Mediterranean civilisations.
A Seer is taken to Mona's burial chamber in the ruins of Atlantis, where she revives and describes the catastrophe. There follows a survey of the lost civilisations of Hyperborea and Lemuria as well as Atlantis, accompanied by much spiritualist lore.
William Walton Hoskins admits to the readers of his Atlantis and other poems Cleveland OH, , that he is only Its melodramatic plot concerns the poisoning of the descendant of god-born kings.
The usurping poisoner is poisoned in his turn, following which the continent is swallowed in the waves.
An angel foresees impending catastrophe and that the people will be allowed to escape if their semi-divine rulers will sacrifice themselves. Beecher's The Lost Atlantis or The Great Deluge of All Cleveland OH, is just a doggerel vehicle for its author's opinions: that the continent was the location of the Garden of Eden; that Darwin's theory of evolution is correct, as are Donnelly's views.
Atlantis was to become a theme in Russia following the s, taken up in unfinished poems by Valery Bryusov and Konstantin Balmont , as well as in a drama by the schoolgirl Larisa Reisner.
His page The Fall of Atlantis records how a high priest, distressed by the prevailing degeneracy of the ruling classes, seeks to create an androgynous being from royal twins as a means to overcome this polarity.
When he is unable to control the forces unleashed by his occult ceremony, the continent is destroyed.
The Destruction of Atlantis, for military concert band in Paintings of the submersion of Atlantis are comparatively rare. The style of architecture apart, it is not very different from Nicholas Roerich 's The Last of Atlantis of The most dramatic depiction of the catastrophe was Leon Bakst 's Ancient Terror Terror Antiquus , , although it does not name Atlantis directly.
It is a mountain-top view of a rocky bay breached by the sea, which is washing inland about the tall structures of an ancient city.
A streak of lightning crosses the upper half of the painting, while below it rises the impassive figure of an enigmatic goddess who holds a blue dove between her breasts.
Vyacheslav Ivanov identified the subject as Atlantis in a public lecture on the painting given in , the year it was first exhibited, and he has been followed by other commentators in the years since.
Sculptures referencing Atlantis have often been stylized single figures. It represents a single figure, clad in a belted skirt and wearing a large triangular helmet, who sits on an ornate throne supported between two young bulls.
As a result, a portion of the population will mutate into fish-like creatures. Global warming and rising water levels are practical problems for the world in general and here in the Netherlands in particular".
Robert Smithson 's Hypothetical Continent Map of broken clear glass, Atlantis was first created as a photographical project on Loveladies Island NJ in ,  and then recreated as a gallery installation of broken glass.
North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fictional island in Plato's works, now a synonym for supposed prehistoric lost civilizations.
For other uses, see Atlantis disambiguation. Plato from Raphael 's The School of Athens — Main article: Timaeus dialogue.
Main article: Critias dialogue. See also: Nazism and occultism. Main article: Location hypotheses of Atlantis.
New York: Penguin. Plato also wrote the myth of Atlantis as an allegory of the archetypal thalassocracy or naval power.
Atlantis, according to Plato, had conquered all Western parts of the known world, making it the literary counter-image of Persia.
See Welliver, Warman Leiden: E. Classical Review. Renaissance Studies. New York: McGraw-Hill. In Cleary, John J. Archaeologists broadly agree with the view that Atlantis is quite simply 'utopia' Doumas, , a stance also taken by classical philologists, who interpret Atlantis as a metaphorical rather than an actual place Broadie, ; Gill, ; Nesselrath, One might consider the question as being already reasonably solved but despite the general expert consensus on the matter, countless attempts have been made at finding Atlantis.
Journal of Hellenic Studies. In Ramage, Edwin S. Atlantis, Fact or Fiction? Indiana University Press. Gwyn Oxford Journal of Archaeology.
Philosophy and Literature. For Your Information. Galaxy Science Fiction. Bury translation Loeb Classical Library. London: Thames and Hudson.
Translated by Benjamin Jowett. Retrieved 16 August Atlantis och Syrakusai , ; English: Atlantis and Syracuse , The Classical Quarterly. New Series.
Taylor, Nesselrath. A and Renfrew, A. Lost Continents: Atlantis. Moreover, the country which skirts the ocean bears, they say, not a few names which are derived from the Argonauts and the Dioscori.
Franke, Aristotle and Atlantis , ; pp. Retrieved 24 October Holmes, New York: Gnome Press, p. Cambridge University Press.
Book 12". Retrieved 6 November , from Project Gutenberg page In Joseph Gelfer ed. London: Equinox Publishing. Thesaurus Geographicus. Antwerp: Plantin.
Retrieved 12 May Tripp Austin: University of Texas Press. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
In Garrett G. Archaeological Fantasies. London and New York: Routledge. Studies in Eighteenth-century Culture. Uranian Wisdom. Retrieved 29 September Retrieved 28 June PhD Thesis.
Edgar Cayce on Atlantis. Stanford: Stanford UP. Retrieved 17 January Le Colonne d'Ercole. La prima geografia. Tutt'altra storia.
Ancient Mysteries. Retrieved Journal of Archaeological Science. Editorial Interinsular Canaria. Historia y ciencia in Spanish.
Atlantis: The Evidence of Science. Algora Publishing. L'Atlantide: Petite histoire d'un mythe platonicien in French. Belles Lettres.
Silva, M. Perez-Torrado, H. Guillou, and S. Scaillet, , Fluvial dissection, isostatic uplift, and geomorphological evolution of volcanic islands Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain Geomorphology.
Scaillet, H. Guillou, A. Lomoschitz, J. Carracedo, J. Ballester, J. Betancort, and A. Cilleros, , Evidence for long-term uplift on the Canary Islands from emergent Mio—Pliocene littoral deposits.
Global and Planetary Change. Watkins, and L. Wilson, , Deep-sea tephra from the Azores during the past , years: eruptive cloud height and ash volume estimates.
Geological Society of America Bulletin. Auffret, A. Boelaert, T. Richter, T. Garlan, and R. June Retrieved 19 April Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
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